Bash Check If Multiline String Contains

Used to test an expression and then conditionally execute a command. This includes observations about web pages, setup questions. Bash script to check if string1 contains string2. The grep function takes your regex as the first argument, and the input vector as the second argument. Examples have been provided for Bash Split String operation. Ask Question or else check that the string length == # of array elements - 1. CHECK TABLE can also check views for problems, such as tables that are referenced in the view definition that no longer exist. Scala array FAQ: How do I create a String array in Scala? There are a few different ways to create String arrays in Scala. The ANYALPHA and ANYDIGIT functions evaluate each byte individually and if both return a. Below are a couple of ways this can be done without invoking any other processes. " This means if a line contains the string "30", the system prints out the element at the 3rd column of that line. 7 UNIX if-then-else Exampleswith Sample Shell Scripts!!! - Part I While preparing to write this quick shell scripting tutorial on the UNIX if then else statement, I spent a respectable amount of time reviewing some of the more advanced UNIX shell scripts that I have written during the past 15 years not only to see if there was a pattern to my usage of the "if then else" shell scripting. To check if a main string ends with a given string, we should look into last n characters only for main string, where n is the size of given string. Using grep you can search any string in all files available in the directory hierarchy. You can also use ">" to check if the first string is greater than the second or "<" to check for the opposite. As well as inserting or appending text that you type, you can insert or append text from registers, for example, the clipboard. Bash is intended to be a conformant implementation of the Shell and Utilities portion of the IEEE POSIX specification (IEEE Standard 1003. Check string only contains numbers. Since system does a fork and wait it may affect a SIGCHLD handler. ie: VAR="hello". You are painting an image with the Brush tool. The UNIX file system might also be envisioned as an inverted tree or the root system of plant. txt", for which the multi-line user input is terminated by user pressing Control + Z. This is owner's own InputBox in C#, with only one function. Since bash does not discriminate string from a number, an array can contain a mix of strings and numbers. I wish Javascript were a living language, one that could be improved without strain. Not allowed as a reply item. The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by isspace (3)) followed by a single optional '+' or '-' sign. The task is to find whether the string is valid or not. Note that in some cases, there may be more efficient ways to perform that task, but we've generally chosen the one that involves the simplest code. Very often new users would dwell on Google trying to find the correct command to find files containing specific text. Embedded double quotes are escaped with a preceding double quote. true if string is not a null string string1 = string2. To check a table, you must have some privilege for it. Unlike in many other programming languages, in bash, an array is not a collection of similar elements. For example "3382" is a substring of "this is a 3382 test". Shortest code to check if a string has only letters [closed] The multi-line string contains a tabulator, a space and a linefeed. The time to respond to outages is one of the most important metrics to measure, when you have a 24/7 business to run. I need to read this string line by line, that is to assign line 1 of the string to a certain variable, line 2 to another, and so on. Shell string processing capabilities were weak, but recently in bash 4. The database types are not the same. They allow us to decide whether or not to run a piece of code. If your code is indented, for example in the body of the method of a class, your string will contain the whitespace of the indentation. multiline (m) extended (x) Empty String mau Check if a string only contains numbers Regex Tester isn't optimized for mobile devices yet. Linux test command help and information with test examples, syntax, and related commands. Hello, I have a string that contains many lines. Bourne, Eric Schmidt, Brian W. $(filter-out pattern…,text). Suppose you had a long message that you wanted to show in multiple lines. Do you want to find all files that contain a particular word or string of text on your entire Linux system or a given directory. the OP mentions a problem passing the multi-line strings to a comparison. Unix / Linux Shell - The ifeliffi statement - The ifeliffi statement is the one level advance form of control statement that allows Shell to make correct. The simplest definition might be "contains newline characters" in which case you search and see if it contains any. On some comparisons you check for 2 vowels but for U you only check for one, I am thinking that you would want to check for each one separately. Clear the check box to opt out. A shell is a program that provides the traditional, text-only user interface for a Unix-like operating systems. I'm thinking this is prob | The UNIX and Linux Forums Using BASH =~ regex to match multiple strings. The syntax is: func`string`. unix—for all Unix It is used to test the length of a string or one or more files. Thanks for any help or guidance. Used to test an expression and then conditionally execute a command. But how does it display when you set it to the Text property, after doing the replace?Does it still show the text on separate lines? Because in my quick test just bow, it correctly showed "line1, line2, line3" in the textbox. I want to append file with a string but before doing that i want to check if this string already exist in that file. How to check that string is alphanumeric or not in vb. Many programming languages support similar escapes for non-printable characters in their syntax for literal strings in source code. Not allowed as a reply item. The most frequently employed and usually the most useful is the star wildcard, which is the same as an asterisk (*). sh and added an else statement to existing if command to create if. The question asks how to check if a variable is an empty string and the best answers are already given for that. Returns a value indicating whether a specified character occurs within this string. The target sequence is either s or the character sequence between first and last, depending on the version used. All of the files in the UNIX file system are organized into a multi-leveled hierarchy called a directory tree. A hash is an un-ordered group of key-value pairs. If you've exhausted these resources then please send email to an appropriate mailing list. See `STRING` in perlop and exec for details. Shell programming is heavily dependent on string processing. grep searches through files for a specified character string. There are a lot of builtin filters for extracting a particular field of an object, or converting a number to a string, or various other standard tasks. Send usage statistics - By default, Docker Desktop sends diagnostics, crash reports, and usage data. Here a listed few of many ways how to extract number from a string. The entire match is assigned to BASH_REMATCH[0], the first sub-pattern is assigned to BASH_REMATCH[1], etc. In grep -c $2, the content of $2 would be taken as an option if it started with -. Strangely one of the easiest and most portable ways to check for "not contains" in sh is to use the case statement. Powershell - How to get Multiline String with Get-Content (txt file) Scripting > The Official Scripting Guys Forum! mysettings. If the first line with a match contains multiple matches,. Using grep you can search any string in all files available in the directory hierarchy. Bash Comments - In this tutorial, we shall learn how to provide single line and multiple line comments in a Bash Script file. Percent tilde. [Brad Nicholes] *) util_ldap: Enhanced the util_ldap cache-info display to show more detail about the contents and current state of the cache. Is there a way to find and replace a multi-line string pattern from the Linux command line? Suppose you have a text file that looks like the following. One of the most used feature is to match two or more, multiple string, patterns or regex. Save Your Code. Hello, As all you know we can insert multiple lines to one cell while pressing CTRL + Enter combinations. If statements (and, closely related, case statements) allow us to make decisions in our Bash scripts. Replace-FileString. textread matches and converts groups of characters from the input. Computer understand the language of 0's and 1's called binary language. say i want to know if string1 contains string2. I've already tried different styles of quoting '*test', "*test", Who can help me? Thanks in advance for your replies! Best regards, Bart. com severalnines. The second example doesn't work for either of them. Here is a nice run of several failures and how pytest presents things:. 25) and it worked fine with all of them. - Linux - Fixed support for comparing GIF images in the Picture Compare. PHP introduces a more robust string creation tool called heredoc that lets the programmer create multi-line strings without using quotations. The quotes turn substitution on and off. How to Replace Line Breaks , New Lines From String in Java. Inserting multiple lines in a VBA message box. 2) "write to stdout" and "read from stdin until eof" are now supported, making it possible to use this engine to develop CGIs with Apache or other UNIX-based HTTP servers. - Windows, Mac or Linux We often need to replace line terminator characters, also known as line breaks e. Python String class has __contains__() function that we can use to check if it contains another string or not. Shortest code to check if a string has only letters [closed] The multi-line string contains a tabulator, a space and a linefeed. sh") I'd like to check for newline to ensure only one file matched. This is particularly important when you’re tying to follow a badly written guide of forum post that says something like replace 0 with 1 in this line which will fix PulseAudio configured for per-user sessions …. I assume that the issue is different types of breaks being used in the two strings, as I've had this happen on test after test. Insert - Insert(IntStartIndex, String_value). Note that some of these commands are different on non-Solaris machines - see SunOS differences. Demo of Python failure reports with pytest¶. Each input field is defined as a group of non-white-space characters that extends to the next white-space or delimiter character, or to the maximum field width. The bash shell includes a lot of commands and expansion capabilities to take advantage of the input you have typed in. The entire match is assigned to BASH_REMATCH[0], the first sub-pattern is assigned to BASH_REMATCH[1], etc. I wish Javascript were a living language, one that could be improved without strain. This shell script accepts two string in variables and checks if they are identical. If the interpreter is explicitly given as #!/bin/bash or similar, the [[]] can be used without issues (and it is a bit faster than the alternative in Bash, I believe - not that it should be a bottle neck anyway), otherwise one should stick with []. A regular expression field can create a Boolean workflow variable which will tell if the multi-line text value is blank. - Misc - Fixed crash when scaled thumbnail is too small to show anything. Any attempt to do so splits each line into a separate array element. System Variables. So Far: After searching Excel Help, I found this example:. This is a simple process, but may not be self-explanatory to people that don’t understand the file’s structure. But that’s not a multiline string! That is a multiline string literal representing a single-line string. In this article, we will discuss the cat command in detail, explaining some of its key. Be sure that when you use the str. Is there a way to assign a variable with a multi line string (array) right in the console without getting it from a file or other commands? We work on consoles and often we will quickly copy the text from an excel sheet or some other source and I may want to do something with those data (for example 5 servers which I need to supply to Test. true if string1 and string2 are identical string1!= string2. Note that in some cases, there may be more efficient ways to perform that task, but we've generally chosen the one that involves the simplest code. For all Cygwin-related questions and observations, please check the resources available at this site, such as the FAQ, the User's Guide and the mailing list archives. As you can see, color codes are quite tiring to use. In the above program, This is Python is a string literal and C is a character literal. Matching Whole Lines of Text. HowTo: Check If a String Exists Posted on Tuesday December 27th, 2016 Friday February 24th, 2017 by admin Sometimes, we need to check if the pattern presents in a file and take some actions depending on the result. Bourne, Eric Schmidt, Brian W. Here's some code I ran on my computer as a test (using PowerShell v3). The second is the pattern you want to count. Bash Array. @StéphaneChazelas yes, that's why I specified that recent versions of bash can do this. Dynamically-allocated string: Since sometimes you do not know how big a string is until run-time, you may have to resort to dynamic allocation. Linux test command help and information with test examples, syntax, and related commands. Using "type con >myfile. Identify String Length inside Bash Shell Script ${#string} The above format is used to get the length of the given bash. Unix Command Summary See the Unix tutorial for a leisurely, self-paced introduction on how to use the commands listed below. Recommended: Please. prompt: C shell prompt Contains the C shell prompt string. The Azure CLI uses the --query argument to execute a JMESPath query on the results of commands. org/mailman/listinfo/python-list. Case insensitive 'Contains(string)' Is there a way to substring a string? How to check whether a string contains a substring in JavaScript? How do I check if a string contains another string in Objective-C? Does Python have a string 'contains' substring method? How to split a string in Java. grep, fgrep, and egrep do not modify files. If you a regular Linux command line user, I am sure you must have used the cat command. This doesn't work however. A string literal can span multiple lines, but there must be a backslash \ at the end of each line to escape the newline. File test operators. Checking if a string contains a substring is one of the most basic and frequently used operations in Bash scripting. Common uses for command line options include checking your resources in multiple AWS Regions, and changing the output format for legibility or ease of use when scripting. contains() method returns true if and only if this string contains the specified sequence of char values. See for example the documentation on MSDN about 'fread()':. For example, “1234” is a string while 1234 is a numeric. In the above program, This is Python is a string literal and C is a character literal. Usually though in a bash script you want to check if the argument is empty rather than if it is not empty, to do this you can use the -z. Press Enter to run them (Shift + Enter to input multi-line commands). argc tells you how many command-line arguments there were. This Scala tutorial shows how to determine if a String contains a given regular expression (regex) pattern. The u"\u00dcnic\u00f6de" is a unicode literal which supports characters other than English and r"raw string" is a raw string literal. I have a bash shell function that takes an argument and perform something on it if needed. I did not find any function for this checking. Quickly and easily develop desktop, mobile, and web applications with Java, JavaScript, HTML5, PHP, C/C++ and more. Swift strings are represented by the String type. All of us are very familiar with strings in programming languages like C. And for extra marks, there’s a JUnit test suite in the /test directory. To split string in Bash with multiple character delimiter use Parameter Expansions. Any attempt to do so splits each line into a separate array element. The C program is successfully compiled and run on a Linux system. Robert Cruz explained to me that in this particular case only you need to escape doublequotes by doublequotes, i. How to check whether a string contains a substring in JavaScript? How to redirect to another webpage in JavaScript/jQuery? How do I remove a particular element from an array in JavaScript? How to create an HTML button that acts like a link? How to revert Git repository to a previous commit? How to check whether a checkbox is checked in jQuery?. If you click the save button, your code will be saved, and you get an URL you can share with others. $$ - contains the process ID of the current shell. file can include a partial path, complete path, relative path, or no path. I did not find any function for this checking. However that does not cover a string that contained a single newline not followed by any other characters so if your definition includes that you'll need to check for it (and various other corner cases). Is there any linux command to extracts all the ascii strings from an executable or other binary file? I suppose I could do it with a grep, but I remember hearing somewhere that such a command existed?. Always make sure to use numbers, not strings, for these comparisons. You may have to register or Login before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. Thank you for the script, but I am having a little trouble. In the examples of this article, we'll use this multi-line string: The red fox (who was being followed by a wolf) ran faster than the gray fox. But remember, that the system does not check if such a file already exists, so carefully choose the name to avoid overwriting your "precious" file. Query Azure CLI command output. Here is the code:. bat "Yellow Submarine" uboot color. Bash reads PS1 variable to define the primary prompt and PS2 for a secondary prompt (used when writing multi-line commands). Python String contains. I'm thinking this is prob | The UNIX and Linux Forums Using BASH =~ regex to match multiple strings. In this section of our Bash Scripting Tutorial you will learn the ways you may use if statements in your Bash scripts to help automate tasks. edit file opens the specified file in the Editor. The shell execute echo statement for each assignment of i. Introducing the ClusterControl Alerting Integrations. As well as inserting or appending text that you type, you can insert or append text from registers, for example, the clipboard. that tells of a new and improved version of the open source screen reader for Linux using the Gnome Desktop Environment. Awk, on the other hand, makes no strong distinction between strings and numbers. You can get the value from bash functions in different ways. The IF function in Excel returns one value if a condition is true and another value if it's false. Python string __contains__() is an instance method and returns boolean value True or False depending on whether the string object contains the specified string object or not. How you can compare the string values in bash is shown using various examples in this tutorial. From Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial - A Beginner's handbook String comparison can be done using test command itself. Strings can be placed either between single quotes ' or double quotes " and they have slightly different behavior. Regular Expressions - Search and/or Replace. 4) The full UNIX file system can now be accessed. argv contains the actual command-line arguments as an array of strings, the first of which (as we have already discovered) is the program's name. CreateProcess will pass the null terminated string containing a command-line to whatever program your new process will invoke. Using Nintex Workflow for Office 365, I wanted to test to see if a multi-line text field was blank. Here is the version that I created while everyone was answering with wonderful answers using Linq and built-in String Methods, I don't think I used anything they haven't already mentioned. argc tells you how many command-line arguments there were. As there is already a lot of answers using Bash-specific features, there is a way working under poorer-featured shells, like busybox:. There are 21 such operators. How to count occurrence of a specific character in a string or file using bash separates any given string to multiple lines. `bash` is the most common interactive shell used on unix systems, and consequently, syntax specific to `bash` is often used in shell scripts. After reading this tutorial, you should have a good understanding of how to test whether a string includes another string. sourceforge. More "Test If File Contains String Bash" links How to test if string exists in file with … I have a file that contains directory names: my_list. Escape everything that is non-alphanumeric, including spaces, exclamation marks, dollar signs, ampersands, angle brackets, double quotes and single quotes. The test and [commands determine their behavior based on the number of arguments; see the descriptions of those commands for any other command-specific actions. check if a string contains some text?. If the radio button with value 1 had been checked prior to this invocation, MapServer would replace [zoomdir_1_check] with the string checked. This type of variable (with the exception of auto_resume and histchars) is defined in CAPITAL LETTERS. Cell contains one of many with exclusions To test a cell for one of many strings, while excluding others, you can use a formula based on the SEARCH, ISNUMBER, and SUMPRODUCT functions. First column contains format specifiers for the String. Using ^ and $ as Start of Line and End of Line Anchors. Using FIND to search files or standard output for a string containing doublequotes used to be a pain I often used FINDSTR instead, in these cases. Batch command to check if a string exists in a text file Hi, I am trying to check if a string exists in a text file, and if it does then execute another. This method produces a String that can be used to create a Pattern that would match String s as if it were a literal pattern. The CONTAINS and LIKE operators are only valid in a WHERE clause. Using Nintex Workflow for Office 365, I wanted to test to see if a multi-line text field was blank. To get the 2 characters that follow the first 5 in a string, you can say ${string:5:2} for example. To find substring in bash, use the following syntax :. awk - Read a file and split the contents awk is one of the most powerful utilities used in the unix world. But it doesn't look like it only searches for the specific string but any text containing that string. If the condition is met the associated command is executed. The regular expression should find and return everything EXCEPT the text string in the search expression. How to test if a String contains a case-insensitive regex pattern. If you have Perl installed on your system. Line 2 aaaaakkk knlnflef baby efqwf. In grep -c $2, the content of $2 would be taken as an option if it started with -. How do I read a String from a File line-by-line? the test. How you can compare the string values in bash is shown using various examples in this tutorial. Bash shell find out if a variable has NULL value OR not; Bash Shell Find Out If a Variable Is Empty Or Not; Bash Shell Count Number of Characters In a String or Word; Bash check if string starts with character such as # Use BASH nullglob To Verify *. XAMPP is a free and open source cross-platform web server package, consisting mainly of the Apache HTTP Server, MySQL database, and interpreters for scripts written in the PHP and Perl programming languages. Star Wildcard. What is the simplest way to check if a string contains newline? For example, after FILE=$(find. Below are a couple of ways this can be done without invoking any other processes. Unix contains a powerful programming language with loops and variables that I don't really understand. Portability issues: system in perlport. Percent tilde. /L1"C/C++" C_LANG Line Comment = // Block Comment On = /* Block Comment Off = */ Escape Char = \ String Chars = "' File Extensions = C CPP CC CXX H HPP AWK. This is a problem if you develop Web pages on a DOS machine and then upload them to your Unix Server. Browse other questions tagged string bash if-statement. In such cases, you can use multiline records. This results in inconsistent command syntax and overlap of functionality, not to mention. : 'ab' in 'abc' -> true 'ab' in 'bcd' -> false How can I do this in a conditional of a bash script?. The C program is successfully compiled and run on a Linux system. developerWorks blogs allow community members to share thoughts and expertise on topics that matter to them, and engage in conversations with each other. 7 UNIX if-then-else Exampleswith Sample Shell Scripts!!! - Part I While preparing to write this quick shell scripting tutorial on the UNIX if then else statement, I spent a respectable amount of time reviewing some of the more advanced UNIX shell scripts that I have written during the past 15 years not only to see if there was a pattern to my usage of the "if then else" shell scripting. Not allowed as a reply item. Using grep you can search any string in all files available in the directory hierarchy. But i am not finding it. This method receives 2 string parameters. They hope these examples will help you to get a better understanding of the Linux system and that you feel encouraged to try out things on your own. What if you are looking for files that must match more than one string? Here is a quick run down on how you can use grep or egrep to match multiple strings. Each input field is defined as a group of non-white-space characters that extends to the next white-space or delimiter character, or to the maximum field width. This Scala tutorial shows how to determine if a String contains a given regular expression (regex) pattern. sh’ with the following code. @StéphaneChazelas yes, that's why I specified that recent versions of bash can do this. The traditional approach to find lines not matching a pattern is using the :v command: :v/Warning/p A neat trick when working with a large log file where you want to filter out as many irrelevant lines as possible before you get started on your real search is to save the file under a temporary name and delete all non-matching lines there:. CHECK TABLE checks a table or tables for errors. Python has several comparison operators you can use to compare two or more string values. Invoking Mail To Receive Messages. Displays a prompt in a dialog box, waits for the user to input text or click a button, and returns a string containing the contents of the text box. Here's my test script: Code: #!/bin/bash I'm sure this is some nuance of linux strings. The closing right bracket, ], in an if/test should not therefore be strictly necessary, however newer versions of Bash require it. This is owner's own InputBox in C#, with only one function. This is known as iteration. Below is the implementation of above idea : // palindrome or not. 2 days ago · These common String based questions are the ones you need to know to successfully interview with any company, big or small, for any level of programming job. I'll cover the following topics in the code samples below: Windows InstallerOther Languages Batch Command, Goto, Languages Re Batch Command, Batch Command, and Text File. bash check if string. developerWorks blogs allow community members to share thoughts and expertise on topics that matter to them, and engage in conversations with each other. The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by isspace (3)) followed by a single optional '+' or '-' sign. Thu, 21 Sep 2017. In case you arrive from the world of Unix/Linux Shell programming you will recognize $0 is being the name of the script there too. You can still take a. Check But if you want to include a multi-line string, you will get an empty string. Refer to our earlier article on bash { } expansion. To get the 2 characters that follow the first 5 in a string, you can say ${string:5:2} for example. How to append string/data to a file in Linux This article will show you how to append a string (or any data) to the end of a file under Linux/Unix. 5 and it's still worth exploring. A response "No mail for user_name" means there are no new or old saved mail messages. - Linux - Fixed support for comparing GIF images in the Picture Compare. The result of var1 = var2 where Var1 and var2 only differ in the use of capitals depends on the Option Compare Setting. python doesn't have a list. )) for numerical tests, and [[. ) Here's the source code for a complete Java program that demonstrates this case-insensitive pattern matching technique: /** * Demonstrates how to perform a case-insensitive pattern * match using String and the String. Examples have been provided for Bash Split String operation. For now, we will just think of an expression as a string. Identify String Length inside Bash Shell Script ${#string} The above format is used to get the length of the given bash. Used to test an expression and then conditionally execute a command. sv system variable to true. How to Create a Single Endpoint for your PostgreSQL Replication setup using HAProxy Thu, 1 Nov 2018 severalnines. In this case, $0 is the default target string. It does indeed break when PWD contains regex operators. How to Replace Line Breaks , New Lines From String in Java. I'll cover the following topics in the code samples below: Windows InstallerOther Languages Batch Command, Goto, Languages Re Batch Command, Batch Command, and Text File. The term “regular expressions” is frequently. In C language, strings are stored in an array of char type along with the null terminating character "\0" at the end. Star Wildcard. It's work fine for linux. Using the Perl index() function Introduction. A shell is a program that provides the traditional, text-only user interface for a Unix-like operating systems. bash check if string. Without -f, git branch refuses to change an existing branch. It's a little more costly (I guess) but for me this solution's readability offsets that. Python is referred to as a very easy-to-learn language and supports many data types such as integers, floats, doubles, and booleans. Using C++ File Streams David Kieras, EECS Dept. A string literal can span multiple lines, but there must be a backslash \ at the end of each line to escape the newline. Thanks in advance. To get the 2 characters that follow the first 5 in a string, you can say ${string:5:2} for example. Welcome to the most active Linux Forum on the web. com severalnines. I decided to give it a little bit of flexibility and have it so that it doesn't matter what order those two arguments are put: number then file name, or file name then number. severalnines. If the specified expression evaluates true, then the single command with arguments is executed. Not allowed as a reply item. 10-digit phone number with hyphens match whole word Find Substring within a string that begins and ends with paranthesis Simple date dd/mm/yyyy all except word RegEx for Json Match if doesn't. txt and test. for example these are the alphanumeric:. A tool to enforce Swift style and conventions. If one of the lines contain the "baby" string, i have to delete this line! Can you help me?. Checking if a Python String is a Digit in Python (str. Returns whether some sub-sequence in the target sequence (the subject) matches the regular expression rgx (the pattern). Since bash does not discriminate string from a number, an array can contain a mix of strings and numbers. to see if it contains any of these characters I thought of using asci values but was a little confused on exactly how that would be implemented. Parsing multi-line string to extract only. It has also changed over time as the Swift language and the standard library have developed. Bash Shell Find Out If a Variable Is NULL - Determine if a bash shell variable is NULL or not, using if or conditional expression under Linux/Unix/macOS. Apart from the common scalar variables, awk is also able to manage variable. Examples to find String Length in Bash. It shows how to find the first occurrence of the regex, as well as all occurrences of the regex. The C program is successfully compiled and run on a Linux system. It is always at least 1, because the first string in argv (argv[0]) is the command used to invoke the program. I want to append file with a string but before doing that i want to check if this string already exist in that file. Here is the version that I created while everyone was answering with wonderful answers using Linq and built-in String Methods, I don't think I used anything they haven't already mentioned.